**Pardon Waiver Provision***In re Suh*, 23 I&N Dec. 626 (BIA 2003) [controlled substances]*Balogun v. A.G.*, 425 F.3d 1356 (11th Cir. 2005) [controlled substances]*Aguilera-Montero v. Mukasey*, 548 F.3d 1248 (9th Cir. 2008) [controlled substances]*Aristy-Rosa v. A.G.*, 994 F.3d 112 (3d Cir. 2021) [controlled substances]**(PDF Summary)**

**Particular Social Groups:**CIRCULARITY*Rreshpia v. Gonzales*, 420 F.3d 551 (6th Cir. 2005)

**Particular Social Groups:**FOUNDATIONAL CASES*Matter of Acosta*, 19 I&N Dec. 211 (BIA 1985)*Fatin v. INS*, 12 F.3d 1233 (3d Cir. 1993) [Alito]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of C-A-*, 23 I&N Dec. 951 (BIA 2006) [socially visible]**(PDF Summary)**

*Matter of A-M-E- & J-G-U-*, 24 I&N Dec. 69 (BIA 2007) [socially visible]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of S-E-G-*, 24 I&N Dec. 579 (BIA 2008) [gangs, age]**(PDF Summary)**

**Particular Social Groups**: SUCCESSFUL*Lukwago v. Ashcroft*, 329 F.3d 157 (2003) [escaped child soldier, Uganda]**(PDF Summary)**

*Konan v. Attorney General*, 432 F.3d 497 (2005) [son of gendarme, Cote d’Ivoire]**(PDF Summary)***Tapiero de Orejuela v. Gonzales*, 423 F.3d 666 (7th Cir. 2005) [educated, landowning cattle farmers]

*Gomez-Zuluaga v. A.G.*, 527 F.3d 330 (3d Cir. 2008) [women who escaped from FARC]**(PDF Summary)***Torres v. Mukasey*, 551 F.3d 616 (7th Cir. 2008) [family]*Garcia v. A.G.*, 665 F.3d 496 (3d Cir. 2011) [persons who testified as witnesses against gang members]**(PDF Summary)**

*Crespin-Valladares v. Holder*, 632 F.3d 117 (4th Cir. 2011) [family]

*Henriquez Rivas v. Holder*, 707 F.3d 1081 (9th Cir. 2013) (en banc) [persons who testified as witnesses against gang members]**(PDF Summary)***Gonzalez-Posadas v. A.G.*, 781 F.3d 677 (3d Cir. 2015) [homosexual men, Honduras]**(PDF Summary)***Rios v. Lynch*, 807 F.3d 1123 (9th Cir. 2015) [family as quintessential PSG]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of L-E-A-*, 27 I&N Dec. 40 (BIA 2017) [family membership]**(Study)***Matter of L-E-A-*, 27 I&N Dec. 581 (A.G. 2019) (*L-E-A-*II) [family membership]*Matter of E-R-A-L-*, 27 I&N Dec. 767 (BIA 2020) [Landowners]**(PDF Summary)***Guzman Orellanas v. A.G.*, No. 19-1793 (3d Cir. April 17, 2020) [persons who publicly provide assistance against major Salvadoran gangs]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of L-E-A-*, 28 I&N Dec. 304 (A.G. 2021) (*L-E-A-*III) [family membership]

**Particular Social Groups:**UNSUCCESSFUL*Fatin v. INS*, 12 F.3d 1233 (3d Cir. 1993) [educated feminist Iranian women]**(PDF Summary)***Rreshpia v. Gonzales*, 420 F.3d 551 (6th Cir. 2005) [young attractive women]

*Ochoa v. Gonzales*, 406 F.3d 1166 (9th Cir. 2005) [Colombian bus. owners resisting narcos]*In re C-A-*, 23 I&N Dec. 951 (BIA 2006) [noncrim informants w/ cartels]**(PDF Summary)***Arteaga v. Mukasey*, 511 F.3d 940 (9th Cir. 2007): [gang members]*Valdiviezo-Goldamez v. A.G*., 502 F.3d 285 (3d Cir. 2007) [resisting gang recruitment]*Matter of A-M-E- & J-G-U*, 24 I&N Dec. 69 (BIA 2007) [affluence, wealth]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of S-E-G-*, 24 I&N Dec. 579 (BIA 2008)**(PDF Summary)***Davila-Mejia v. Mukasey*, 531 F.3d 624 (8th Cir. 2008) [competing family business owners]

*Ahmed v. Holder*, 611 F.3d 90 (1st Cir. 2010) [association with U.S.]*Lizama v. Holder*, 629 F.3d 440 (4th Cir. 2011) [Americanization]*Khan v. A.G.*, 691 F.3d 488 (3d Circuit 2012) [secularized Pakistanis w/ U.S. ties]**(PDF Summary)**

*Guzman Orellanas v. A.G.*, No. 19-1793 (3d Cir. April 17, 2020) [persons who publicly provide assistance against major Salvadoran gangs: NOT PSG]**(PDF Summary)**

**Particularly Serious Crimes***K.A. v. A.G.*, 997 F.3d 99 (3d Cir. 2021)

**Persecution**: DEFINING IT*Fatin v. INS*, 12 F.3d 1233 (3d Cir. 1993) [general standard]

*****Asani v. INS*, 154 F.3d 719 (7th Cir. 1998) [even single beating]*****Dandan v. Ashcroft*, 339 F.3d 567 (7th Cir. 2003) [number of incidents]*****Mashiri v. Ashcroft*, 383 F.3d 1112 (9th Cir. 2004) [emotional/psychological]***Voci v. A.G.*, 409 F.3d 607 (3d Cir. 2005) [isolated incidents, no injury]***Chavarria v. Gonzalez*, 446 F.3d 508 (3d Cir. 2006) [not all unjust treatment]*Matter of T-Z-*, 24 I&N Dec. 163 (BIA 2007) [not limited to physical harm]**(PDF Summary)*******Kibinda v. A.G.*, 447 F.3d 113 (3d Cir. 2007) [medical severity]*****Gomez-Zuluaga**v. A.G.*, 527 F.3d 330 (3d Cir. 2008) [death threats, etc.]

**Persecution:**CUMULATIVE EFFECT*Dandan v. Ashcroft*, 339 F.3d 567 (7th Cir. 2003)

*Voci v. Gonzales*, 409 F.3d 607 (3d Cir. 2005)**(PDF Summary)**

*Manzur v. Dep’t of Homeland Sec.*, 494 F.3d 281 (2d Cir. 2007)

*Fei Mei Cheng v. A.G.*, 623 F.3d 175 (3d Cir. 2010)**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**GANG VIOLENCE*Lopez-Soto v. Ashcroft*, 383 F.3d 228 (4th Cir. 2004)

*Menjivar v. Gonzales*, 416 F.3d 918 (8th Cir. 2005)*Ortiz-Araniba v. Keisler*, 505 F.3d 39 (1st Cir. 2007)

*Matter of S-E-G-*, 24 I&N Dec. 579 (BIA 2008)**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**ECONOMIC SANCTIONS*Borca v. INS*, 77 F.3d 210 (7th Cir. 1996)

*Yong Hoo Chen v. INS*, 195 F.3d 198 (4th Cir. 1999)

*Guan Shan Liao v. USDOJ*, 293 F.3d 61 (2d Cir. 2002)

*Ahmed v. Ashcroft*, 341 F.3d 214 (3d Cir. 2003)*Baballah v. Ashcroft*, 367 F.3d 1067 (9th Cir. 2004)*Eduard v. Ashcroft*, 379 F.3d 182 (5th Cir. 2004)

*Li v. A.G.*, 400 F.3d … (3d 2005)**(PDF Summary)***Ahmed v. Gonzales*, 467 F.3d (7th Cir. 2006)

*In re. T-Z-*, 24 I&N Dec. 163 (BIA 2007)**(PDF Summary)***Fei Mei Cheng v. A.G.*, 623 F.3d 175 (3d Cir. 2010)**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**FAMILY PLANNING*Matter of Chang*, 201 I&N Dec. 38 (BIA 1989) [overruled by IIRIRA]*Li v. A.G.*, 400 F.3d … (3d 2005)**(PDF Summary)***Matter of T-Z-*, 24 I&N Dec. 163 (BIA 2007)**(PDF Summary)**

*In re M-F-W- & L-G-*, 24 I&N Dec. 633 (BIA 2008)**(PDF Summary)***Fei Mei Cheng v. A.G.*, 623 F.3d 175 (3d Cir. 2010)**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**NEXUS*Konan v. A.G.*, 432 F.3d 497 (2005)**(PDF Summary)***Fei Mei Cheng v. A.G.*, 623 F.3d 175 (3d Cir. 2010)**(PDF Summary)***Ayala v. Sessions*, 855 F.3d 1012 (9th Cir. 2017) [Extortion plus]**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**THREATS*Boykov v. INS*, 109 F.3d 413 (7th Cir. 1997)

*Lim v. INS*, 224 F.3d 929 (9th Cir. 2000)*Li v. A.G.*, 400 F.3d … (3d 2005)**(PDF Summary)**

*Chavarria v. Gonzalez*, 446 F.3d 508 (3d Cir. 2006)**(PDF Summary)***Sumalia v. A.G.*, No. 189-1342 (3d Cir. March 31, 2020)**(PDF Summary)***Herrera-Reyes v. A.G.*, No. 19-2255 (3d Cir. Feb. 28, 2020)**(PDF Summary)***Doe v. A.G.*, 956 F.3d 135 (3d Cir. 2020)**(PDF Summary)**

**Persecution:**WHAT DOESN’T QUALIFY*Abdille v. Ashcroft*, 242 F.3d 477 (3d Cir. 2001) [$ motive]**(PDF Summary)**

*Dandan v. Ashcroft*, 339 F.3d 567 (7th Cir. 2003)

*Konan v. A.G.*, 432 F.3d 497 (3d Cir. 2005) [general unrest]**(PDF Summary)***Voci v. Gonzales*, 409 F.3d 607 (3d Cir. 2005) [single instances of harm]**(PDF Summary)***Shehu v. A.G.*, 482 F.3d 652 (3d Cir. 2007) [criminals motivated by money]**(PDF Summary)***Iztlilco-Morales v. Keisler*, 507 F.3d 651 (8th Cir. 2007) [poor health care for HIV+]*Gonzalez-Posadas v. A.G.*, 781 F.3d 677 (3d Cir. 2015) [isolated criminal acts]**(PDF Summary)***Matter of A-B-*, 27 I&N Dec. 316 (A.G. 2018) [DV/gang violence]**(Summary)**

**Political Opinion / Imputed***INS v. Elias-Zacarias*, 502 U.S. 478 (1992)

*Matter of R-O-*, 20 I&N Dec. 455 (BIA 1992)

*Voci v. Gonzales*, 409 F.3d 607 (3d Cir. 2005)**(PDF Summary)***Chavarria v. Gonzalez*, 446 F.3d 508 (3d Cir. 2006)**(PDF Summary)***Zacarias-Velasquez v. Mukasey*, 509 F.3d 429 (8th Cir. 2007)

*Bartolo-Diego v. Gonzales*, 490 F.3d 1024 (8th Cir. 2007)*Matter of S-E-G-*, 24 I&N Dec. 579 (BIA 2008)**(PDF Summary)**

*Espinosa-Cortez v. A.G.*, 607 F.3d 101 (3d Cir. 2010)**(PDF Summary)***Matter of N-M-*, 25 I&N Dec. 526 (BIA 2011) [whistleblowing]**(PDF Summary)***Tilija v. A.G.*, 930 F.3d 165 (3d Cir. 2019)**(PDF Summary)***Guzman Orellana v. A.G.*, 956 F.3d 171 (3d Cir. 2020)**(PDF Summary)**

**Post-Departure Bar***William v. Gonzales*, 499 F.3d 329 (4th Cir. 2007)*Marin-Rodriguez v. Holder*, 612 F.3d 591 (7th Cir. 2010)

*Coyt v. Holder*, 593 F.3d 902 (9th Cir. 2010)*Pruidze v. Holder*, 632 F.3d 234 (6th Cir. 2011)*Prestol Espinal v. A.G.*, 653 F.3d 213 (3d Cir. 2011)*Reyes Torres v. Holder*, 645 F.3d 1073 (9th Cir. 2011)*Luna v. Holder*, 637 F.3d 85 (2d Cir. 2011)

*Prestol Espinal v. A.G.*, 653 F.3d 213 (3d Cir. 2011) [MTR, history]**(PDF Summary)**

**REAL ID Act of 2005**: CREDIBILITY*Gao v. Ashcroft*, 299 F.3d 266 (3d Cir. 2002) (superseded: heart of the matter)**(PDF Summary)***Toure v. A.G.*, 443 F.3d 310 (3d Cir. 2006)**(PDF Summary)**

**REAL ID Act:**MIXED MOTIVES*Gomez-Zuluaga v. A.G.*, 527 F.3d 330 (3d Cir. 2008)**(PDF Summary)***In re J-B-N- & S-M-*, 24 I&N Dec. 2008 (BIA 2007)**(PDF Summary)***Ndayshimiye v. A.G.*, 557 f.3d 124 (3d Cir. 2009) (same as ^^)**(PDF Summary)**

**Recission in absentia removal order**22 I&N Dec. 349 (BIA 1998)*In re M-S-*,**(PDF Summary)***Matter of J-G-*, 26 I&N Dec. 161 (BIA 2013)**(PDF Summary)**

**Reinstatement of prior removal order***Gonzalez-Posadas v. A.G.*, 781 F.3d 677 (3d Cir. 2015)**(PDF Summary)***Andrade-Garcia v. Lynch*, 828 F.3d 829 (9th Cir. 2016) [reasonable fear determination]*Ayala v. Sessions*, 855 F.3d 1012 (9th Cir. 2017) [reasonable fear determination]**(PDF Summary)***Bartolome v. Sessions*, 904 F.3d 803 (9th Cir. 2018)**(PDF Summary)**

**Removal of USC***Gallarza v. Szalczyk*, 745 F.3d 634 (3d Cir. 2013)**(Summary)**

**Similarly Situated Family Members***Toure v. A.G.*, 443 F.3d 310 (3d Cir. 2006)**(PDF Summary)***Herrera-Reyes v. A.G.*, No. 19-2255 (3d Cir. Feb. 28, 2020)**(PDF Summary)**

**Termination of Case by IJ***Matter of S-O-G- & F-D-B-*, 27 I&N Dec. 462 (A.G. 2018)

**Torture (under the CAT)***Matter of R-A-F-*, 27 I&N Dec. 778 (A.G. 2020) [poor conditions in MX mental health facility]**(PDF Summary)**

**Visa Waiver Program***Kanacevic v. INS*, 448 F.3d 129 (2d Cir. 2006)*Shehu v. A.G.*, 482 F.3d 652 (3d Cir. 2007)**(PDF Summary)**

**Voluntary Departure**562 F.3d 246 (3d Cir. 2009)*Sandie v. A.G.*,**(PDF Summary)***Matter of Viera-Garcia,*28 I&N Dec. 223 (BIA 2021)**(PDF Summary)**

**Withholding-Only Proceedings***INS v. Cardoza-Fonseca*, 480 U.S. 421 (1987)*INS v. Aguirre-Aguirre*, 526 U.S. 415 (1999)*Matter of I-S- & C-S-*, 24 I&N Dec. 432 (BIA 2008)*Padilla-Ramirez v. Bible*, 882 F.3d 826 (CA9 2017)

*Guerrero-Sanchez v. Warden YCP*, 905 F.3d 208 (CA3 2018)*Martinez v. LaRose*, 968 F.3d 555 (CA6 2020)

*Nasrallah v. Barr*, 590 U.S. ___ (2020)*Johnson v. Guzman Chavez*, 594 U.S. ___ (2021)**(PDF Summary)**